The establishment of the short-lived Slovak Soviet Republic.
June 16 1919, Prešov–The Hungarians had made considerable gains in Slovakia since going on the offensive there in late May. The Allies in Paris were growing increasingly frustrated with Hungary, but were divided on what to do and had little real authority in the area. The French wanted the Romanians to cross the Tisza and overthrow Béla Kun by force, but the Americans were worried that this would lead to an irreversible expansion of Romania. Ultimately, they settled on a series of sharply-worded telegrams to Hungary, Romania, and Czechoslovakia, sent on June 12. The Allies had decided on Hungary’s borders, and all three countries would withdraw their forces behind their new frontiers; these decisions could not be changed “by the unscrupulous use of military methods.”
On June 16, the Hungarians, likely in response, decided to resort to political methods instead, setting up a Slovak Soviet Republic in the areas they had taken. This made the conflict in Slovakia technically an internal Slovakian matter, separate from the question of the Hungarian-Slovakian frontier. This did not satisfy the Allies, however, and the Hungarians (by now also suffering reverses in the field) agreed to withdraw from Slovakia entirely; the Slovak Soviet Republic would last only three weeks. Hungarian hopes that the Romanians would also adhere to Allied demands and pull back from the Tisza were not fulfilled. Hungary’s establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic and subsequent withdrawal only managed to alienate Hungarian nationalists, who had supported Béla Kun’s regime not out of affection for communism, but because they thought he offered the best hope for preventing the loss of territory to Hungary’s neighbors.
Sources include: Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919; Glenn E. Torrey, The Romanian Battlefront in World War I.
IWM (Q 12059) “A Bristol Fighter of No. 22 Squadron; the “flank guard” in the formation. Taken from another machine. Serny aerodrome" by McLellan, David (Second Lieutenant)(Photographer)
IWM (Q 12054) “Four Bristol Fighters of No. 22 Squadron leaving Serny aerodrome in formation. The machines on the ground being towed out of the hangars are Sopwith Camels.“ by McLellan, David (Second Lieutenant)(Photographer)
IWM (Q 12056) “A Bristol Fighter of No. 22 Squadron in flight climbing to its position in the formation, taken from another aircraft. Serny aerodrome” by McLellan, David (Second Lieutenant)(Photographer)